Three queen conch shells on the beach at North Bay on Salt Cay Queen Conch shells on North Bay Beach, Salt Cay.
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Mature queen conch shell at Half Moon Bay in the Turks and Caicos
A Queen Conch (strombus giga).

Conch (pronounced ‘konk’) is a large type of edible marine snail popular throughout the Caribbean and especially in the Turks and Caicos Islands. Conch tastes similar to clams, although it is a lot more ‘rubbery’ with a more defined texture. The primary environment of the Queen Conch is seagrass beds.

The Queen Conch, the primary type of conch consumed in the Turks and Caicos, was previously known under the scientific name Strombus gigas, although it was reclassified as Lobatus gigas. This conch is in the Strombidae family.

Conch is an important symbol of the Turks and Caicos, being one of three symbols on our flag (the other two being a spiny lobster and a Turks head cactus).

History of the Animal

The Queen Conch, or strombus giga, is found naturally in the Atlantic, from the coast of Brazil, the Bahamas, up until the Florida Keys. As an endangered species, it's prohibited to fish or gather conch in the United States. Queen Conch are protected under the CITES Treaty, and as such exporting the animal (or the shell) requires a permit.

In the early 1990s, 16 Caribbean countries exported conch to the United States. Today, only 3 countries export conch to the United States (the Turks and Caicos is one).

Queen Conch are herbivores, unlike other conch species such as the horse conch.

Conch is becoming endangered in the Turks and Caicos due to extreme overfishing. Some conservation efforts have been implemented, but overall the rate of fishing is not sustainable for these mollusks. The Caicos Conch Farm on Providenciales was the world’s only conch farm, which used to supply conch for the entire country and also for export. However, the relative long maturity time for this marine mollusk, along with the relatively low cost of conch meat, meant it was never a highly-profitable venture.

As Food

Conch has played a critical role in the diet of islanders in the Turks and Caicos, and remains a popular dish at restaurants throughout the archipelago.

Conch fritters, conch salad and crack conch are the most popular forms, although other dishes such as conch chowder can also be found.

Conch Life Cycle

Queen helmet and queen conch on the beach in the Turks and Caicos
A helmet conch and queen conch shell. Queen conchs are the species which are edible and used in local dishes.

Conchs start as an egg in an ‘egg mass’, a group of individual strands which are woven together with sand to protect the individual delicate eggs. Each egg mass has approximately 500,000 eggs.

5 days after hatching, in the larva phase, conchs are about .5 mm (1/50”), and have yet to undergo the metamorphosis stage. This metamorphosis phase occurs around day 18, which by then they are .8 mm (1/32”). Day 19, after they have undergone metamorphosis and are now in the post-larva stage, conchs are usually about 1 mm (1/24”) in size.

For the first year, while they are juveniles (60-180 mm, 2½-7”), it can be difficult for them to survive. The conchs are small enough to simply be eaten whole by octopuses and similar predators. Other natural predators are lobster, stings rays, tulip shells, crabs, turtles and porcupine fish.

Conchs take 3-4 years to mature and become suitable for consumption. They are scavengers, which mean they scour the sea floor for food, eating mostly carrion and other scraps.

Conchs have separate sexes and mate approximately 9 times a year, between March and October. Female conchs lay an egg mass (of 500,000 eggs). In the wild, only one egg out of 500,000 in the egg mass usually matures into an adult.

Shells and Their Uses

Juvenile queen conch in the sea grass beds off Providenciales
A juvenile conch in its natural habitat on the ocean floor.

Queen Conchs produce beautiful shells which are known for their vibrant pink interiors. Unfortunately, to remove the animal from the shell fishermen routinely crack the top of the shell to break the seal the animal creates and thus be able to pull it from the shell. This ultimately damages the aesthetic value of the shell.

Conch shells have been used as trumpets. This can be found for sale around the islands, although it's a bit tricky to properly blow a trumpet sound.

Early settlers to the Turks and Caicos would grind and burn the shells to create plaster and stucco for their walls. More recently, a local entrepreneur uses broken conch shells to create bathroom and kitchen countertops.

Due to the extremely hard nature of the shells, broken shells have been used to line the tops of walls to prevent people climbing over, much like what is done with broken glass.

Conch pearls are rare but do occur. They form in much the same way as a clam pearl.

It is illegal import conch shells into many countries, including the United Kingdom. Interestingly, conch shells are the 9th most confiscated item by UK Customs and Border Protection.

More About Conch in the Turks and Caicos

As Food

Conch is an integral part of local cuisine in the Turks and Caicos Islands. The two most popular dishes, conch fritters and conch salad, are a relatively recent culinary event, but have nonetheless become a staple of local cuisine. A few local restaurants, including Da Conch Shack in Blue Hills, let you snorkel and catch your own conch. They’ll then clean, prepare and cook it for your lunch or dinner.

See Turks and Caicos Food and Cuisine for more information.

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